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Wild plants may be capable of resisting herbicides.

Credit goes to Xiao Yang
Genetic modification to create crops resistant to herbicides has been widely utilized to provide advantages to the varieties of rice that are weedy. These findings suggest that these modifications can have a broad spectrum of effects that extend beyond farms, and even into the wild.

A variety of crops have been genetically modified to be intolerant to the herbicide glyphosate. It was initially sold under the trade name Roundup. This resistance to glyphosate allows farmers to eliminate herbicides, without causing damage to their crops.

Glyphosate inhibits growth of plants by inhibiting EPSP synthase (an enzyme that is involved in the formation of amino acids as well as various other molecules). This enzyme could comprise as much as 35 percent or more of the plant’s total mass. ラウンドアップ じょうろ The method of genetic modification, which is used in Roundup Ready crops by Monsanto (based in St Louis in Missouri) is the process of inserting genes into the crop to increase EPSP synthase production. The genes are typically derived from bacteria infected with plants.

The plant can endure the negative effects of glyphosate due to its additional EPSP-synthase. ラウンドアップ Biotechnology laboratories are attempting to utilize genes that come from plants instead of bacteria to boost EPSP synthase. This is mainly due to the US law allows approval by the regulatory authorities to allow organisms with transgenes to be recognized as acceptable.

There aren’t many studies that have looked into whether transgenes like those that confer glyphosate resistant can make plants more competitive for reproduction and even survival after they’re introduced to weedy or wild relatives through cross-pollination. Norman Ellstrand of University of California Riverside declares, “The conventional expectation is that any type of transgene that is found in nature will confer disadvantage if there’s no selection pressure because the extra machinery could lower the fitness.”

Lu Baorong of Fudan University in Shanghai is in the process of challenging this notion. The study shows that resistance to glyphosate even when applied to the weedy type of rice crop can provide a significant health boost.

In the study which was published this month in New Phytologist 1, Lu and his colleagues genetically modified the rice cultivar to enhance the species’ own EPSP synthase and cross-bred the modified rice with a weedy relative.

The group then permitted the offspring of cross-breeding to be bred together to produce second-generation hybrids. They were genetically identical except for the number and count of EPSP synthase gene. As one would expect, hybrids that had more copies of the gene were more likely to produce more tryptophan as well as have more enzyme levels than the unmodified hybrids.

Researchers also found that transgenic hybrids grew between 48-125% more seeds per plant. They also had more photosynthesis, and had more shoots than the non-transgenic varieties.

Lu suggests that making rice that is weedy more competitive may make the problem worse for the farmers around the world who’s fields are being ravaged by the pest. Brian Ford-Lloyd from the University of Birmingham, UK Brian Ford-Lloyd from the University of Birmingham, UK “If the EPSP synthase gene is introduced to wild rice species, their genetic variety is crucial in conserving it, could be at risk because it could outcompete the normal varieties.” This is among the clearest examples of extremely plausible harmful effects [of GM crop on the environment.”

ラウンドアップ 畑に使える The popular belief that genetically modified crops containing additional copies of their genes are safe is challenged by this study. “Our study proves that this isn’t necessarily the case” Lu says. Lu.

A few researchers believe this discovery calls for a review of future regulation of genetically modified crops. “Some individuals are claiming that biosafety regulations are relaxed because we have an extremely high level of satisfaction with two decades of genetic engineering,” says Ellstrand. “But this study has shown that novel products still need to be evaluated with care.”