In nature, herbicide resistance could confer advantages to plants.
Credit: Xiao Yang
A common technique for genetic modification of crops that make them herbicide-resistant has been found to give advantages to weedy varieties rice, even when herbicide isn’t present. This suggests that these modifications may be detrimental to the environment beyond farms.
ラウンドアップ ラウンドアップ There are many kinds of plants are genetically modified to resist the glyphosate. Roundup was the first herbicide that was marketed. This resistance to glyphosate enables farmers to eliminate plants without doing any harm to their crop.
Glyphosate acts as an inhibitor of the growth of plants. ラウンドアップ It blocks an enzyme known as EPSP synthase. https://shop.sunday.co.jp/c-3/c-35/c-4500/228935/ This enzyme plays a role in the creation of specific amino acids as well as other molecule. These substances can account for up to 35% of a plant’s mass. The genetic-modification method, used in Roundup Ready crops by Monsanto (based in St Louis in Missouri) is the process of inserting genes into the crop to increase EPSP synthase production. Genes are usually derived from bacteria that cause disease to the crops.
The plant can endure the negative effects of glyphosate since it has an extra EPSP-synthase. Biotechnology labs are also looking to make use of genes that come from plants instead of bacteria to increase EPSP synthase. This is partly because the US law allows regulatory approval to allow organisms with transgenes to be accepted.
Lu Baorong, an ecologist from Fudan University in Shanghai has changed the way that he views this. He found that glyphosate resistance gives significant fitness benefits to a weedy variant of the standard rice crop Oryza sativa.
Lu and his coworkers modified the cultivars of rice to make more EPSP synthase. They also crossed the modified rice with a weedy-related. Their work was published in NewPhytologist 1..
The team then allowed the breeding offspring from the cross to mix with one another, resulting in second-generation hybrids that were genetically identical to one another with the exception of the number of copies of the gene encoding EPSP synthase. As expected, the hybrids that had more copies of the gene were more likely to make more tryptophan as well as have greater levels of enzymes than the unmodified hybrids.
Researchers also discovered that transgenic hybrids have higher rates of photosynthesis, they grew larger flowers and shoots and produced 48-125% more seeds per plant than non-transgenic hybrids- in the absence of the chemical glyphosate.
Lu states that making the weedy grain more competitive could create more difficulties for farmers across the world who have crops affected by the insect.
“If the EPSP-synthase gene is introduced into the wild rice plant, their genetic diversity, which is vital to preserve may be at risk as the transgene’s genetic make-up will outcompete the natural species” says Brian Ford-Lloyd who is a plant geneticist at the University of Birmingham, UK. This is among the most evident examples of plausible harmful effects [of GM crop on the environment.”
The public believes that plants with genetically modified genes containing more replicas of their own genes than microorganisms are more safe. This belief is however questioned by the study. Lu says that Lu’s research does not contradict this notion.
According to some scientists this research suggests that any future regulation for genetically engineered plants should be reconsidered. Ellstrand says that “some people now believe that biosafety regulations could be relaxed since we have a a high degree of comfort with genetic engineering for the past two decades.” “But the study still suggests that new products need careful evaluation.”