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In the wild, plants can be given herbicide resistance. Credit: Xiao Yang
The use of genetic modification to make crops resistant to herbicides has been widely employed to create advantages for the varieties of rice that are weedy. This suggests that such genetic modification may also have potential to impact wild animals.

A variety of crops are genetically altered in order to resist the effects of glyphosate. This herbicide was first available under the trade name Roundup. Farmers can eradicate most the weeds that grow in their fields by using this glyphosate resistance without causing damage to their crops.

Glyphosate acts as an inhibitor of plant growth.;/?ep=A8boAGMAAOk9D9p0ukRTVkkDuQFow6Z7BJ8UnftNkmHgl3PUuy2233xLj70JFunaVy19CEP5NNKUneayy2S5oXumoHYqNMbHCLOiqxCbV2AUINeD5XYdD8tE4UjtUV5Er2W-ARWxxyfi17QMyL3D25FdayBSGc7YkdEgpG9RwA-S-fHkVY3SExbmBOBil1jliykWW-JnuExijfAMRpecIiEsLBWBYwjq0tKhAw&v=2 It blocks an enzyme known EPSP synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the production of certain amino acids as well as other molecules. These compounds could make up as much as 35% of a plant’s mass. The method of genetic modification, which is employed in Roundup Ready crops by Monsanto (based in St Louis in Missouri) involves inserting genetic material into a crop to increase EPSP-synthase output. Genes usually come from bacteria that cause disease to plants.

ラウンドアップ The plant is able to withstand the effects caused by glyphosate due to its extra EPSP-synthase. Biotechnology labs also tried to make use of the genes of plants to increase the EPSP synthase enzyme, in part to exploit an American loophole that permits regulatory approval of transgenes that are not derived from by bacterial pests.

There aren’t many studies that have examined the possibility that transgenes that confer glyphosate tolerance can — once they become weedy or wild relatives by cross-pollinatingcan boost the plant’s survival and reproduction. Norman Ellstrand is a University of California Riverside plant geneticist. “The hypothesis is that any kind of transgene will cause disadvantage in the wild, in the absence of select pressure, since it could reduce the fitness of the plant,” Ellstrand said.

Lu Baorong (an ecologist at Fudan University, Shanghai) has now challenged that view. It has shown that resistance to glyphosate can provide an impressive fitness boost to a weedy rice crop, called Oryza Sativa even when not being used.

Lu and his colleagues modified the cultivars of rice to produce more EPSP synthase. ラウンドアップ They also crossed the modified rice with a weedy related. Their findings were published in NewPhytologist 1.. The group then permitted the offspring of cross-breeding to be bred together to produce second-generation hybrids. They were genetically identical, with the exception of the copy count and number of the EPSP synthase gene. The researchers found that the hybrids that had greater than one copy of the gene encoding EPSP synthase expressed more enzyme and produced more tryptophan, as expected.

Researchers also found that plants with transgenic genes were more photosynthesis-intensive and produced more flowers and produced 48-125% fewer seeds per plant than nontransgenic hybrids. ラウンドアップ グリホサート This was in spite of the fact that glyphosate was never present. Lu believes that making the weedy rice more competitive may cause more problems for the farmers around the globe whose fields are infested with the pest.

“If the EPSP-synthase gene is introduced into the wild rice plant, their genetic diversity, which is essential to protect, could be threatened because the genotype with the transgene could outcompete normal species,” says Brian Ford-Lloyd an expert in plant genetics at the University of Birmingham, UK. ラウンドアップ “This is an illustration of the most plausible and damaging effects of GM crops on the environment.”

This research also challenges the perception that genetically modified plants with extra copies of their genes are more safe than those containing microorganism genes. Lu says that Lu’s research does not contradict this view.

According to some scientists this research suggests that future regulation of genetically engineered plants should be rethought. Ellstrand saysthat “Some people think that the biosafety regulations should be eased.” Ellstrand adds: This study isn’t proof that the new products are secure.